Concussion and mild traumatic brain injuries remain a concern in many sports. While great strides have been made to improve training and new rules are coming out in many sports to reduce the risk of concussion, there remains a significant gap in protective equipment technologies. The application of materials engineering, rapid prototyping, computational modeling and on-field testing has allowed for the rapid advancement of sports protective equipment. We will review the on-field data in regards to concussion rates across a variety of helmeted sports and at various levels of play. Next a review of suspected physiologic mechanisms and engineering strategies used to mitigate concussive forces will be discussed. Our data from bench testing a novel helmet design for American football and hockey, as well as computational finite element modeling of brain injury biomechanics, will be reviewed. On-field concussion rates, as well as signs and symptoms related to contact exposure, will also be discussed comparing retrospective data for teams adopting novel helmet technologies in American football and hockey.